Tenses: Past Perfect - Английский язык с Марией Батхан.

Tenses: Past Perfect

Tenses: Past Perfect


Прошедшее совершенное время образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “had” и третьей формы смыслового глагола (V3):


had + V3


We had cleaned the house before my parents arrived.

They’d finished their work by 6 p.m yesterday.


Чтобы сделать предложение отрицательным, нужно добавить частицу “not” к вспомогательному глаголу “had”:


had + not + V3


Jessica hadn’t booked a table in advance, that's why she couldn’t have dinner at the restaurant.

Mark hadn’t got the laundry off the rack before it started to rain.


Как образуется вопрос?


Общий вопрос: Had + subject + V3?


Had you managed to complete all the tasks before your boss assigned you a new one?

Had he saved enough money before he moved abroad?


Специальный вопрос: Wh- + had + subject + V3?


- She wasn’t there when I arrived. - Why had she left?

- Why had nobody told me about the cancelled meeting? I came to the office just to realize that the door was closed.


Когда используется Past Perfect?


1)     Для передачи действия, которое закончилось к определенному моменту в прошлом или до другого действия в прошлом:


The delivery had arrived by 8 p.m yesterday.


The burglars had left before the police arrived. (= The burglars left first and then the police arrived.)


Действие, которое произошло позже, должно стоять в Past Simple.


2)     Для передачи действия, которое закончилось в прошлом и результат был виден в прошлом:


My son had cooked breakfast on his own so the kitchen looked messy. (= First, he cooked breakfast and that’s why the kitchen was messy.)


Сравните: My son has cooked breakfast on his own so the kitchen looks messy. (= My son has cooked breakfast and the result is that the kitchen looks messy now.)