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Tenses: Past Perfect

Tenses: Past Perfect

 

Прошедшее совершенное время образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “had” и третьей формы смыслового глагола (V3):

 

had + V3

 

We had cleaned the house before my parents arrived.

They’d finished their work by 6 p.m yesterday.

 

Чтобы сделать предложение отрицательным, нужно добавить частицу “not” к вспомогательному глаголу “had”:

 

had + not + V3

 

Jessica hadn’t booked a table in advance, that's why she couldn’t have dinner at the restaurant.

Mark hadn’t got the laundry off the rack before it started to rain.

 

Как образуется вопрос?

 

Общий вопрос: Had + subject + V3?

 

Had you managed to complete all the tasks before your boss assigned you a new one?

Had he saved enough money before he moved abroad?

 

Специальный вопрос: Wh- + had + subject + V3?

 

- She wasn’t there when I arrived. - Why had she left?

- Why had nobody told me about the cancelled meeting? I came to the office just to realize that the door was closed.

 

Когда используется Past Perfect?

 

1)     Для передачи действия, которое закончилось к определенному моменту в прошлом или до другого действия в прошлом:

 

The delivery had arrived by 8 p.m yesterday.

 

The burglars had left before the police arrived. (= The burglars left first and then the police arrived.)

 

Действие, которое произошло позже, должно стоять в Past Simple.

 

2)     Для передачи действия, которое закончилось в прошлом и результат был виден в прошлом:

 

My son had cooked breakfast on his own so the kitchen looked messy. (= First, he cooked dinner and that’s why the kitchen was messy.)

 

Сравните: My son has cooked breakfast on his own so the kitchen looks messy. (= My son has cooked breakfast and the result is that the kitchen looks messy now.)