1. Every is a determiner. However, each can be a determiner and a pronoun.
We use each when we are talking about separate individuals in the group (Each person chooses a different route to the castle.) and we use every when we are talking more about the group as a whole (Every route was of about the same length.).
We use each to talk about two or more things or people, but we can use every for more than two. We use each and every as determiners with a singular noun or a singular verb.
1) We use each as a pronoun:
with of + noun
Each of them spent more time on completing the tasks than we expected.
Each of the participants was over eighteen.
after nouns and pronouns for emphasis
They have each taken a compass with them.
They have each been asked to answer some questions.
2) We use every:
after a possessive
The judges followed my every move during the competition.
He listened to her every word.
with plural nouns in frequency expressions
I have extra classes every few weeks.
with adverbs just about, nearly, almost, practically and the negative not
Not every person would be ready to emigrate nowadays.
Practically every trip was over two weeks.
2. We can use all and both as a determiner and a pronoun.
Both of them are really well-qualified teachers.
Have you eaten both these pieces of cake?
It all tastes the same to me.
All of the people in this country are friendly to foreigners.
Although both can be used as a pronoun on its own, all can’t be used in the similar way, except when it is followed by a relative clause.
3. We use the whole instead of all the… with singular countable nouns. Also, we must use the whole + of with words like the, this, these, that, etc.
The whole team was shocked by her outstanding presentation. (
All the team…)
I was feeling absolutely exhausted during the whole of the week.
4. We use either and neither to talk about two things or people.
1) Neither allows us to make a negative statement about two people or things at the same time. Neither goes before singular countable nouns. Neither means “not a single one of two people or things”.
Neither T-shirt fitted her.
Neither of us went to the concert.
We can use neither as a conjunction with nor. It connects two or more negative alternatives.
Neither my brother nor his wife mentioned anything about moving house.
Neither she nor her children liked the concert.
2) We use either to talk about two choices or options. The noun that follows either must be a singular countable noun.
Either restaurant will be okay, as they both serve delicious food.
Either must be followed by of if we use it before the, these, those, or possessives (my, your) with a plural noun.
Either of the cousins can come with us.
I don’t want either of my parents to know I’ve lost my phone..
When used as a determiner, either means “both” before a singular countable noun.
There were nice cafes on either side of the street.
5. No and none of are determiners. Each of them indicates negation.
1) We use no before singular, plural, or uncountable nouns.
I’ve got no extra money to waste.
Michael says he has no close friends.
2) None is the pronoun form of no. None means not one or not any. We use it as a pronoun to replace countable and uncountable nouns. We use it as a subject or an object.
My mother had two sisters. My father had none. (My father didn’t have any sisters.)
What answers did he give? - None.
6. We use the quantifiers much, many, a lot of, lots of to talk about quantities, amounts and degrees. We can use them as determiners.
1) We usually use much and many in questions and negative sentences. We use much with uncountable nouns and many with countable nouns.
How much sugar is there in this birthday cake?
Do you think many people will come?
There aren’t many policemen in the streets nowadays.
We don’t have much money.
When we use much or many before articles, demonstratives, possessives, or pronouns, we need to use of.
How much of this book is fact and how much is fiction?
Unfortunately, not many of the colleagues were there.
2) We use a lot of and lots of in informal styles. Lots of is even more informal. We use these expressions with plural countable nouns and with singular uncountable nouns for affirmatives, negatives, and questions.
We’ve got lots of things to do.
There weren’t a lot of choices.
Are there a lot of good players at your golf club?
Do you eat lots of sugar?
We usually use a lot of or a great deal of instead of very much.
7. (A) little and (a) few are quantifiers meaning not a lot. We use (a) little with singular uncountable nouns and (a) few with plural countable nouns. When we use few and little without an article, these quantifiers have a negative connotation.
We stayed a few days in France and visited museums and galleries.
I was disappointed because only a few people had showed up at my party.
Have you got any money left? – Yes, a little.
I’m not very happy about it but I have little choice.
8. Some and any are determiners. We use them with uncountable and plural nouns. We use any to describe indefinite or unspecified quantities in questions and negative sentences. We use some in affirmative sentences.
I’ve got some questions which I’d like to ask you.
Have you got any water?
There aren’t any new offers in the shop.
However, we can use some in questions when we make offers or requests, or when the quantity of something isn’t specified.
Would you like some tea?
Do you need some help?
Can you get me some juice?