Do you know that the English language can describe states not only by means of lexis, but also with the help of grammar? Different aspects of the verb are a way to show how an action extends or stretches over a period of time. To avoid misunderstanding while talking to your foreign friend, you should look closer at Simple and Continuous Aspects, which can be easily confused.
When you want to talk about results following a past, present, or future action, you need to use the perfect aspect.
The present perfect tense, the past perfect tense, the present perfect continuous tense, the past perfect continuous tense and etc.
There are certain verbs that we rarely use in continuous tenses. They usually describe the state of being, feelings, emotions, and mental processes.
There are lots of ways to express the future meaning in English. Everything depends on the message you want to convey. So, let’s look at the following examples.
The Future in the Past is used to talk about something that was the future at some moment in the past (usually in reported speech).
In English, we use the passive voice when we don’t know, or we don’t want to talk about who or what performs the action that we are describing in our sentence.
The main reason why the passive voice is used is that the speaker wants to focus on the action or the experience rather than on who or what is performing the action. In this case, the subject and object of the sentence or question are swapped (the object becomes the subject and the subject becomes the object or it is omitted).
The verbs to have, to get, to let and to make can be used as causative verbs. Subjects in causative verbs don’t perform the action by themselves but someone else does it for them.
When we want to tell someone what another person said, we often use the verbs to say, to tell, to ask, to reply, to answer, to shout, to add and to remark. These are called reporting verbs. They are usually followed by that. However, we can omit that after most reporting verbs, but we usually don’t omit it after the reporting verbs to reply, to answer and to respond.
Reporting implies that some changes are to be made to the original statement. These changes include modifications to pronouns, time adverbials and verb tenses. All of them are referred to as backshift.
Verb Patterns: use an -ing form, use a to-infinitive and use a bare infinitive.
Different verbs are followed by different prepositions. Most of them have to be memorized.
Conditional sentences are used to describe possible results of situations that could happen in the present or future, or could have happened in the past but didn’t happen. Also, they can express general knowledge and actions that would happen in the future under certain circumstances.
Conditional clauses with I wish and if only describe an imaginary or impossible situation in the past or the present. We use I wish and if only to talk about things that we would like to be (or to have been) different.
We can express conditions with the help of such phrases as: as long as, only if, on condition that, provided that, providing that, etc. at the beginning of a subordinate clause...
Had better + bare infinitive is used to refer to the present or the future. We use it to give advice or to warn about something; to talk about some desirable actions that someone should perform in a certain situation.
We use the Subjunctive mood to express situations that are possible, preferable, imaginary, desired, but sometimes unreal.
All these conjunctions are used to show how someone or something feels, looks, sounds, etc. In this case they are absolutely interchangeable...
A relative clause defines someone or something in the main clause. We use such conjunctions as that, which, when, where, who and many others to introduce a relative clause.